Abstract Penelitian

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Assing Household Food Insecurity in East Java by Using the U.S. Food Security Supplement Measure (US-FSSM) for Developing Countries 1

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Sri Sumarmi*,  Nunik Puspitasari**, Lutfi Agus Salim**, and Widodo***

* Dept of Nutritional Health – School of PH  Airlangga University
** Dept of Biostatistics -School of PH Airlangga University
*** Food Security Board East Java Province

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The objective of this research was to assess the household food security at 8 districts or municipals in East Java by using the modified U.S Food Security Supplement Measure (US-FSSM) for developing countries. A cross sectional study has been conducted at 8 districts or municipals in East Java Province that represent the various typical areas. The research samples were households with children under five year age. Amount of samples were 768 households (96 households in each district/municipals). The household food security was assessed by using the standard questionnaire which was developed based on the U.S Food Security Supplement Measure (US-FSSM) for developing countries. Based on the measurement can be identified that 64.6% of household at 8 Districs/Municiplas were in food secure category, and 35.4% of them were in food insecure condition. Of household with food insecure, we identify 25.7% of household in food insecure without hunger, 7.7% in food insecure with hunger moderate, and 2.1% in food insecure with hunger severe.

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Key words:  Food Insecurity, hunger, Food Security Measurement

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[1] Paper presented at Widya Karya Nasional Pangan dan Gizi IX , Jakarta, August 2008

Research financial supported by : Food Security Board East Java Province (2006)

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Pengembangan Indeks Rawan Pangan di Tingkat Rumah Tangga Menggunakan Confirmatory Factor Analysis1

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Sri Sumarmi*2,  S. Melaniani**, Lutfi Agus Salim**, and M. Taufik***

* Dept Gizi Kesehatan – FKM Universitas Airlangga
** Dept Biostatistik dan Kependudukan – FKM Universitas Airlangga
*** Badan Ketahanan Pangan Propinsi Jawa Timur

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Food insecurity is a current issue in Indonesia and still necessary an appropriate strategy to handle it.  Because of various factors that caused the food insecurity and hunger among regions, it is needed the sensitive and specific indicators to know the early sign of hunger in household level. The objective of this research was to develop the model of food insecurity index in household level.  Index was developed based on the data set collected from 768 household in a cross sectional study conducted at 8 district areas in East Java.  Some data was extracted as predictor variables that construct the indicator and index, such as: family characteristic, access for health services, access for clean water and electricity, access for food, household food availability, intake of energy and protein, frequency and food variability in household level, and nutritional status of mother and children under 5 years.  Index was developed by using the confirmatory factor analysis.  Based on the analysis, there were 4 significant predictor variables that build the model of food insecurity index: 1) socio-economy, 2) food consumption pattern, 3) nutritional factors of the children under 5 year and 4) nutritional factors of the mother.

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Key word:  food insecurity, household, indicator,  index

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[1] Paper presented at Widya Karya Nasional Pangan dan Gizi IX , Jakarta, August 2008

Research financial supported by : Food Security Board East Java Province (2006)

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PENGARUH PEMBERIAN SENG (Zn) PADA IBU HAMIL TERHADAP STATUS SENG IBU DAN BAYI SERTA BERAT BADAN BAYI  LAHIR

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Sri Sumarmi*, Sri Adiningsih*, L.Y. Hendrati** , Diffah Hanim***

* Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM Unair, Surabaya
** Departemen Epidemilogi FKM Unair, Surabaya
*** Laboratorium Gizi FK UNS, Surakarta

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Anemia among pregnant women is still very prevalent and hard to control. Besides, zinc deficiency is also found among pregnant women and  interaction between iron and zinc is interesting to investigate.
Objective Study was conducted to investigate effect of zinc supplementation to maternal zinc status, neonatus zinc status and birth weight. A quasy experimental study by pre test-post test control group design was conducted in cachtment area of 3 Health Centers in Sukoharjo District, Central Java.
Method : Screening was carried out to 57 pregnant women to determine experimental and control group. Using concentration of serum zinc 70 m g/dL as cut off point. 34 pregnant women recruited as experimental group and supplemented with + 30 mg Zn as zinc sulphate daily during third trimester of pregnancy and Fe sulphate (60mg iron daily), seventeen pregnant women recruited as control group supplemented with Fe sulphate (60mg iron daily). Maternal zinc status and hemoglobin level before and after intervention were analyzed to investigate predictor of birth weight and neonatus zinc status (zinc concentration of umbilicus cord). The differences of maternal zinc status in last trimester, Hb level, umbilicus zinc and birth weigth among responden in experimental group and control group were analized using ANOVA. To study the effect of zinc supplementation to birth weigth data were analyzed using ANA CO VA with Hb level in last trimestrer as covariate.
Result : Maternal serum zinc level in last trimester (p=O.0l), Hb level in last trimester (p = 0.44), umbilicus zinc level (p=0.00) were significantly different between experimental and control group, but not for birth weight of new born (p =0, 08). With Hb level in last trimester as covariate, there was a sign d of bfrth weight among experimen tal and control group(p = 0.0/).
Conclusion : Zinc supplementation to pregnant women improve zinc level, hemoglobin and umbilical zinc level. The zinc levelá is still lover than normal value.

Key words : pregnancy, zinc deficiency, maternal zinc status, birth weight

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Research financial supported by : National Health Research and Development Institute, MoH (Badan Litbang Kes Depkes RI) (2001).

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KEAMANAN MAKANAN JAJANAN DI SEKOLAH DASAR KOTA SURABAYA

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Sri Sumarmi

Dept Gizi Kesehatan FKM Universitas Airlangga

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Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menguji keamanan makanan jajanan yang dijajakan di Sekolah Dasar (SD) Kota Surabaya. Penelitian dilakukan di 30 SD yang tersebar di 30 kecamatan di wilayah Kota Surabaya. Di setiap lokasi dilakuak pengamatan terhadap warung sekolah dan penjaja makanan serta dilakukan pengambilan 3 sampel makanan untuk dilakukan uji laboratorium untuk mengetahui adanya cemaran kimia terutama kandungan food additive atau bahan tambahan makanan berbahaya (BTM) dan cemaran biologis berupa kandungan beberapa bakteri patogen terutama E. Coli dan salmonella. Jumlah sampel makanan jajanan yang diperiksa sebanyak 60 jenis makanan dan minuman dengan jumlah pemeriksaan sebanyak 134 item pemeriksaan. Jenis pemeriksaan bahan kimia yang dilakukan adalah pemeriksaan kandungan pewarna berbahaya (rhodamin B dan sunset yellow), pemanis buatan (Na-sakarin dan Na-siklamat), boraks, formalin dan Na-benzoat. Dari 51 jenis makanan dan minuman yang dianalisis bahan pewarna, sebagian besar menggunakan pewarna buatan, dan 27,5% diantaranya menggunkan pewarna yang dilarang, yaitu rhodamin B dan sunset yellow. Kadar rhodamin yang tertinggi adalah gulali di kecamtan Tandes (97 ppm) dan Mulyorejo (40,2 ppm). Formalin ditemukan pada mi kering berbentuk lidi.

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Key word : keamanan pangan, food additive, rodhamin B, formalin.

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Penelitian didanai oleh : Dewan Ketahanan Pangan Kota Surabaya (2005)

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PENDEKATAN PROBABILITAS UNTUK MENENTUKAN KECUKUPAN ZAT BESI PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR

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Sri Sumarmi
Dept Gizi Kesehatan FKM Universitas Airlangga

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Suatu studi telah dilakukan untuk melihat validitas, sensitifitas (Se) dan spesifisitas (Sp) dari pendekatan probabilitas yang digunakan dalam menentukan kecukupan zat besi pada wanita usia subur.  Model yang digunakan dikembangkan berdasarkan distribusi zat besi yang dikeluarkan lewat menstruasi (Beaton, 1974).  Dengan pendekatan ini dapat ditentukan besarnya angka kecukupan zat besi untuk wanita usia subursesuai besarnya populasi yang ingin dicakup agar terhindar dari risiko anemia.  Kadar hemoglobin (metode cyanmethemoglobin) dari 100 responden digunkan sebagai standar uji validitas dengan analisis regresi logistik.  Berdasarkan perhitungan dengan pendekatan probabilitas dan asumsi tingkat penyerapan zat besi sebesar 5%, ditemukan angka kecukupan zat besi 52,5 mg per hari (Se = 0,98; Sp = 0,24) untuk mencakup 95% populasi agar terhindar dari risiko anemia, angka kecukupan 43,5 mg per hari (Se = 0,93; Sp = 0,54) apabila ingin mencakup 90% populasi, dan apabila populasi yang dicakup sebesar 85%, maka asupan yang dianjurkan adalah 38,5 mg per hari (Se = 0,85; Sp = 0,69).  Uji validitas dengan analisis regresi logistik dilakukan terhadap masukan zat besi 43,5 mg, diperoleh hasil bahwa probabilitas anemia pada responden yang mengkonsumsi zat besi 43,5% mg per hari adalah 14%, dimana hasil ini tidak jauh berbeda dengan hasil yang diperoleh dari perhitungan robabilita, bahwa probabilitas anemia pada reponden yang mengkonsumsi zat besi 43,5 mg per hari adalah 10%.

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Key word : zat besi, angka kecukupan gizi, pendekatan probabilitas, anemia

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(Artikel dipublikasi pada :  Prosiding Widyakarya Nasional Pangan dan Gizi VI, hal : 1015-1024)

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PERTUMBUHAN DAN PERKEMBANGAN ANAK USIA DI BAWAH DUA TAHUN DARI IBU PENDERITA  GONDOK

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Sri Sumarmi*, N. Puspitasari** dan  E. Dwiyanti***

* Dept Gizi Kesehatan FKM Unair Surabaya
** Dept Biostatistik dan Kependudukan FKM Unair Surabaya
*** Dept Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Kerja FKM Unair Surabaya
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The objective of this research was to study the growth and development pattern of under two year age children of mother with maternal goiter. The research design was retrospective cohort. The Study was conducted in Banyu Arang village, Ngoro Sub distric, Jombang Distric, because this village was categorized as severe endemic goiter area (TGR=70%). The observed variables were iodine status of children, the growth parameters such as body weight gain, nutritional status, head circumference, chest circumference; the development parameters such as motor miles stone, and score of pre screening questionnaire for development (KPSP). The result of the study indicated that prevalence of maternal goiter was 48.21%, prevalence of iodine deficiency among under two years children was 8.93%. Median of urinary iodine excretion among children of mother with maternal goiter was 404 µg/L and 506 µg/L for children of mother without maternal goiter. Mean of birth weight among children of mother with maternal goiter was 3.02 kg and 2.96 kg for children of mother without maternal goiter. The growth rate of children of mother with maternal goiter was 278.33 gram and 264.16 gram for children of mother without maternal goiter. The head circumference among children of mother with maternal goiter was 46.35 cm compared with 46.05 cm for children of mother without maternal goiter. Ratio of head circumference and chest circumference were 0.96 and 0.97 respectively, and indicated that no asymetric growth retardation among two groups. No significant diference of total score of KPSP between children of mother with maternal goiter and without maternal goiter. There were 2 (two) children that detected under developed children because total score of KPSP less than 7, and they were found from mother with maternal goiter. It was concluded that there was no significant difference of growth pattern between children of mother with maternal goiter and without maternal goiter. It found that generally development of children of mother without goiter better than children of mother with maternal goiter.

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Key words : growth, development, IDD, maternal goiter

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Artikel dipublikasi di : The Indonesian Journal of Public Health vol. 3 no. 3 (Apr. 2007), page 79

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DIVERSIFIKASI KONSUMSI MASYARAKAT BERDASARKAN MENU SEIMBANG DAN SKOR POLA PANGAN HARAPAN PADA KELUARGA BALITA DI KABUPATEN PACITAN

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Sri Sumarmi dan Lutfi Agus Salim

Lembaga Penelitian Universitas Airlangga Surabaya

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The objective of this research was to study the quantity and quality of daily food menu consumed by families. Research was conducted at Pacitan District in East Java Province. The sample size ware 118 families that have children under five year age randomly selected from 4 sub district among 12 sub districts in Pacitan. The observed variables were: 1) Nutrient intake, including energy and protein as well as micronutrient intake. It’s observed using 24 hours dietetic recall method. 2) Food consumption pattern, observed by food frequency method, 3) Food quality, analyzed using two parameter i.e well balance diet and score of Desirable Food Consumption Pattern. The result indicates that quantity of food consumed by families represented by nutrients intake were low if compared with the standard of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The average of energy intake was 73% of RDA, and protein intake was 76.45% of RDA. The quality of food consumption was categorized as unbalance diet, because it was low protein and high carbohydrate. Score of Desirable Food Consumption Pattern was very good (89.19). The score was closed to national score, and it was categorized in golden triangle. Despite of good quality in score, but it’s still necessary to increase animal protein production in order to improve score of animal food.

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Key words : food quality, well balanced diet, desirable food consumption pattern.

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Artikel  dipublikasi di : The Indonesian Journal of Public Health vol. 4 no. 1 (Aug. 2007), page 14

Research financial supported by : District Government of Pacitan, East Java (2006)

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FAKTOR–FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PERBEDAAN STATUS GIZI REMAJA PUTRI DI DAERAH PERKOTAAN DAN PEDESAAN KABUPATEN JOMBANG

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Lailatul Muniroh dan Sri Sumarmi

Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM Unair, Surabaya.

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The increasing severe malnutrition and moderate malnutrition case can not be separated from several influential factors. Furthermore, severe malnutrition rate of rural teenagers is higher than that of urban ones. Based on the National Social Economic Survey 1999, severe and moderate malnutrition were prevalence among rural and urban teenagers. The objective of this research is to reveal some factors influencing the differences of nutritional status on female teenagers in rural and urban areas of Jombang Regency. The observed variables were the characteristics of respondents, food consumption pattern, nutrient adequacy level, and activities. A cross sectional study has been conducted in Jombang High School 2 (SMUN 2 Jombang) represent as urban area, and Ploso High School (SMUN Ploso) represent as rural area. The sample size was 84 female students selected by using p roportional random sampling technique. The result of research after being employed on statistical testing chi-square, fisher’s exact and  mann-whitney using a = 0.05 shows that  respondent’s characteristics influences the difference of nutritional status in both locations are knowledge about nutrition (p=0.000),  pocket money  (p = 0.008), fast food consumption habits (p = 0. 039), energy adequacy level (p = 0,000) and protein adequacy level (p = 0.000). Based on that result, it is suggested that the female teenagers should imp rove their consumption by consuming various food and increase its quantity and quality so that the nut rition adequacy is fulfilled.

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Key words : nutritional status, female teenager, rural and urban

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HUBUNGAN KONSUMSI PROTEIN DAN ZAT BESI DENGAN KADAR HEMOGLOBIN PADA BALITA USIA 13-36 BULAN

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Dewi Andarina* dan Sri Sumarmi**

* Instalasi Gizi RSUD. Dr. Soetomo Surabaya
** Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM Unair, Surabaya

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Children under five years old are the group that susceptible toward the health and nutrition problems. The most prevalence problem is iron deficiency anemia. Most of iron deficiency anemia cases was caused by lack of iron in their meal. Animal food, the one of iron source is important in hemopoietic process. Based on the reason, study was carried out to explore correlation between animal protein and hemoglobin level among children by age 13–36 months in Sawotratap village, under Gedangan Health Center working area, Sidoarjo District. This is a cross sectional research. Samples were 64 children randomly selected from 4 posyandu in Sawotratap. Variable observed were protein consumption, animal protein, iron, and vitamin C from meal and hemoglobin concentration. The research indicates that the average of hemoglobin concentration was 11.36 g/dl, the lowest of hemoglobin concentration was 8.80 g/dl, and the highest was 13.40 g/dl with anemia prevalence was 40.60%. Based on statistic test, there are significant correlation between hemoglobin concentration and protein consumption (r = 0.579), animal protein consumption (r = 0.763), total iron intake (r = 0.554), and vitamin C intake (r = 0.273). The correlation of animal protein consumption with hemoglobin concentration is stronger than other.

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Key words : anemia, animal protein, iron, hemoglobin concentration

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PERBEDAAN KONSUMSI SUPLEMEN SERAT PADA REMAJA DI DAERAH PEDESAAN DAN PERKOTAAN


Mira Mardiana* dan Sri Sumarmi**

* Puskesmas Balongsari Surabaya
**Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM Unair, Surabaya

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The purpose of this research was to analyze the differences of vegetables and a fruit consumption pattern, nutrients and the fiber supplement intake, and such factors affecting the fiber supplement consumption in rural and urban a rea. A comparative study using a cross sectional design was conducted at SMUN (State Senior High School) I Ngoro Jombang that represent the rural area, and SMUN IV Surabaya that represent the urban area. The sample size was 64 respondents of the rural area, and 75 respondents of the urban area were drawn by the simple random sampling technique. The data collected by using instrument of semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The result of this research indicates that the rural teenagers consume vegetables more than the urban teenagers, but the mean of consumption frequency does not indicate any difference. There was no difference of the daily fruit consumption, but the mean the consumption frequency of the urban teenagers was higher than the rural teenagers. There was not any difference of the fiber supplement consumption (p = 0.352) in both areas. There was not any difference of intake, frequency, purpose, benefit and stimulating factor of both areas. The availability of fiber supplement in the urban area more than in the rural area. Based on the result of research, it was suggested to disseminate information about the importance of fiber to our bodies to prevent disease and use the fiber supplement as an alternative of the second choice if it necessary. Fiber should be obtained naturally f rom fruits and vegetables.


Key words : fruit and vegetables consumption, fiber supplement, teenagers

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FAKTOR KARAKTERISTIK IBU YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN POLA INISIASI DAN PEMBERIAN ASI AKSKLUSIF

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Nur Elvayani* dan Sri Sumarmi**

* Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara Kalimatan Selatan
** Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM Unair, Surabaya

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The purpose of this research is to study the maternal characteristic related the pattern of breast feeding milk initiation and exclusive breast-feeding in working area of public health center Sungai Turak of the sub district Amuntai Utara. This is a cross-sectional research. The collection of primary data was conducted using questionnaires, and secondary data were obtained from the puskesmas, the sub district office, as well as related agencies. The size of the research sample that was made up of mothers having 4-month to 12-month old babies and living within the working a rea of the puskesmas Sungai Turak of Amuntai Utara sub district is 70, taken randomly. Each of the studied variables of educational level, occupation, physiological and psychological conditions, knowledge level, sociocultural status, exposure to information or promotion, pattern of breast feeding initiation, and exclusiveness of breast-feeding was tested using  chi square test at a confidence level of 95% or a= 0.05. The pattern of breast feeding initiation or first-time breast-feeding of the newborn is generally good, with early initiation pattern, i.e., firsttime breast-feeding not later than 6 hours after childbirth, and 37.1% with late initiation pattern, or first-time breast-feeding after 6 hours of childbirth. However, 21.4% of respondents give breast feeding initiation for their babies 3 to 4 hours after birth. The mothers who engaged in exclusive breast-feeding accounts for 31.4%, while the remaining 68.6% did not. Mother begin to give weaning food for their babies as follow: 32.9% for 3 months old, 14.3% for 2 months, and 11.4% for 1 month, and 10% for 0 month. The characteristic factors of mothers related with the breast-feeding initiation pattern are knowledge level, psychological condition, and socio-cultural status. Those related with the exclusive breast-feeding are educational level, knowledge level, and exposure to information or promotion. From the research results, it is concluded that there is a need to promote breast-feeding through information efforts coordinated from related agencies so that the goal of exclusive b reast-feeding is reached.

Key words : breast-feeding initiation, exclusive breast feeding

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